Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg

Klassische Indologie

Südasien Institut





Banaras Bibliography

Copyright Jörg Gengnagel & Axel Michaels

Revised and updated, April 2006

 

Content

  1. General
  2. Cultural History
  3. History
  4. Cultural Geography, Ganges
  5. Arts, Architecture
  6. Religion, Ritual
  7. Economics and Society
  8. Banaras in Sanskrit Literature
  9. Banaras in Hindi Literature


1. Banaras in General

All-India Kashiraj Trust (ed.). 1981. Vârânasî - An Introduction to the Greatness of the City. Varanasi.

Bhattacharya, B. 1999. Varanasi Rediscovered. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Cape, C. Phillips. 1909. Benares: The Stronghold of Hinduism. London.
— 1910. Benares. London: Kelly.

Chandra, Motî. 1962. Kâshî kâ Itihâs. Bombay [in Hindi].

Couté, Pierre Daniel & Jean Michel Léger. 1989. Bénarès: Un Voyage d´Architecture, An Architectural Voyage. Textes et documents réunis par P.-D. Couté et J.-M. Léger. Paris: Edition Creaphis.

Eck, Diana L. 1983. Banaras: City of Light. London, [German by Bettina Bäumer: Banares. Stadt des Lichts. Frankfurt/M. 1989].

Freitag, Sandria B. (ed.). 1989a. Culture and Power in Banaras. Community, Performance and Environment, 1800-1980. Berkeley: University of California Press.
— 1989b. "State and Community: Symbolic Popular Protest in Banaras´s Public Arenas". In: Freitag 1989a, loc. cit.,  203-28.

Gutschow, Niels. 2006. Benares–The Sacred Landscape of Vârânasî. Stuttgart/London: Edition Axel Menges.

Gutschow, Niels & Axel Michaels. 1993. Benares: Tempel und religiöses Leben in der heiligen Stadt der Hindus. Köln: Dumont Buchverlag.

Havell, E. B. 1905. Benares, the Sacred City. London: Thacker & Co.

Hertel, Bradley & Cynthia Ann Humes (eds.). 1993. Living Banaras: Religion in Cultural Context. State University of New York Press, Albany.

Joshi, Esha Basanti (ed.). 1965. Uttar Pradesh District Gazetters: Varanasi. Lucknow/Allahabad: Government Press.

Lannoy, Richard. 1999. Benares seen from within. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
2002. Benares: A World within a World. The Microcosm of Kashi Yesterday and Tomorrow. Varanasi: Indica Books. Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series: 2. [Revised text of Lannoy 1999 with a small section of illustrations.] 

Lill, Bernhard. 1991. Zwischen Bombay und Benares. Frederking & Thaler.

Michell, George & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). 2005. Banaras: The City Revealed. Mumbai: Marg Publication Vol. 57, No. 2 (photopgraphs by Clare Arni).

Narain, A. K. & Gopal Lallanji (ed.). 1969. Introducing Vârânasî. Varanasi: Benares Hindu University.

Nevill, H. R. 1909. Benares: A Gazetteer. Vol. XXVI of the District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Allahabad: Government Press.

Nevil, Major H. A. 1925. Benares: The Hindus' Holy City. Bombay: Caxton Printing Works.

Parker, Arthur. 1895. A Handbook of Benares. Banâras: J. Lazarus & Co.

Schilder, Robert & Winand M. Callewaert. 2000. Banaras: Visions of a Living Ancient Tradition. New Delhi: Hemkunt Publishers.

Seshadri, P. 1930. Benares. 3rd Ed. Cawnpore: City Press.

Sen, Ranjani Ranjan. 1912. The Holy City: Benares. Chittagong: M. R. Sen for Minto Press.

Sherring, M. A. 1868. Benares: The Sacred City of the Hindus. Delhi: Cheap Publications.

Singh, R. L. (ed.). 1955. Banâras. Banaras: Nand Kishore & Bros.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1993a. Varanasi Region: An Insight to Tourist Places. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.
— (ed.) 1993b. Banâras (Vârânasî): Cosmic Order, Sacred City, Hindu Traditions. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.
— 1993c. "Varanasi, A World Heritage City: Frame and Historical Accounts". In: R. P. B. Singh 1993b: 297-307.

Singh, Rana P. B. & Pravin S. Rana 2002. Banaras Region. A Spiritual & Cultural Guide.Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series: 1. Varanasi: Indica Books. 

Sinha, Kunal. 2004. A Banarasi on Varanasi. New Delhi: Bluejay Books.

Sukul, Kuber Nath. 1977. Vârânasî Vaibhâva. Patna [in Hindi].

Varanasi City Guide. 2002. New Delhi: Eicher Goodearth Limited.

Verma, T. P. & D. P. Singh & J. S. Mishra (eds.). 1986. Varanasi through the Ages: Proceedings of an All-India Seminar. Varanasi: Bhartiya Itihas Samkalan Samiti.

Vidyarthi, L. P. & B. N. Saraswati & Makhan Jha. 1979. The Sacred Complex of Kashi: A Microcosm of Indian Civilization. Delhi: Concept Publ. Co.

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2. Cultural History

Bakker, Hans. 1993. "Early Mythology Relating to Vârânasî". In: Singh, Rana.P.B. (ed.) 1993b, loc. cit., 21-28.
— 1998. „The Sacred Centre as the Focus of Indological Research: The History of India’s most holy tîrtha, Vârâranasî, reconsidered.“ In: Vacek, Jaroslav & Jan Dvorák (eds.). Trends in Indian Studies. Proceedings of the ESIS. Prague: Karolinum, Charles University Press: 9–20.
— 2006. "The Avimuktakshetra in Vârânasî ts origin and early development. Studies in the Skandapurâna VI". In: Martin Gaenszle & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.) 2006: 23–39.

Bayly, Christopher A. 1978. "Indian Merchants in a 'Traditional' Setting, Benares 1780-1820". In: Hopkins, A. & C. Dewey (eds.), The Imperial Impact. London: Athlone Press, 151-73.

Clémentin-Ojha, C. 2000. "Être un brahmane smârta aujourd´hui. Quelques points de repère à partir une enquête ethnographique à Bénarès". Bulletin de l´École française d´Extrême-Orient 87: 317-39.

Dalmia, Vasudha. 1996. "Sanskrit Scholars and Pandits of the Old School: The Benares Sanskrit College and the Constitution of Authority in the Late Nineteenth Century". Journal of Indian Philosophy, 24 (4): 321-37 [Reprinted in: Orienting India. European knowledge formation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. New Delhi, Three Essays, 2003: 2952.] .
— 1997. The Nationalization of Hindu Traditions: Bhâratendu Harishchandra and Nineteenth-Century Banaras. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
2001. "Vernacular histories in late 19th century Banaras: Folklore, Puranas and the New Antiquarianism". The Indian Economic & Social History Review (Sage, New Delhi), vol. 38 (1): 59-79.
2006. "Visions of a New Banaras in the Early Twentieth Century". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 325–347.

Dar, S. L. & S. Somaskandan. 1966. History of the Banaras Hindu University. Varanasi: B.H.U. Press.

Dubey, Devi Prasad. 1985. "Vârânasî: A Name Study". Archiv Orientální (Academia, Praha) 53 (4) 347-54. Revised and expanded form published in Singh, R.P.B. (ed.) 1993b, loc. cit., 29-36.

Eck, Diana L. 1985. "Banaras: Cosmos and Paradise in the Hindu Imagination". Contributions to Indian Sociology N. S. (New Delhi) 19 (1): 41-55.
— 1993. Encountering God: A Spiritual Journey from Bozeman to Banaras. Boston: Beacon Press.

Freitag, Sandria B. 2006. Visualizing Cities by Modern Citizens: Benares Compared to Jaipur and Lucknow. In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 233–251.

Gaenszle, Martin (in collaboration with Nutandhar Sharma). 2006. "Nepali Places: Appropriations of Space in Banaras". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 303–323.

Gesler, Wilbert M. & Margaret Pierce. 2000. Hindu Varanasi. Geographical Review (AGS, New York), vol. 90 (2): 222–37.

Hertel, Bradley R. & Cynthia A. Humes (eds.). 1993. Living Banaras: Religion in Cultural Context. Albany, N.Y.: SUNY.

Jan Yun-Hua. 1966. "The Korean record on Vârânasî and Sârnâth". In: Vishveshvaranand indological journal 4, 2 (Sept. 1966): 264-272.

Köckman, Uwe. 1993. "The Role of Educational Institution in the Awakening of Hindu Nationalism in 19th Century Vârânasî". In: Singh 1993b, loc. cit., 289-96.

Kishorî, Sarit. 1995. Vârânasî ke sthânnâmom kâ sâmskritik adhyayan. Vârânasî: Vishvavidhyâlaya Prakâshan [in Hindi].

Mehrotra, R. R. 1977. Sociology of Secret Languages. Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Simla. Chapter 2 reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. 1993b, loc. cit., 197-214.

Ramaswamy, Sumathi. 2006. "Enshrining the Map of India: Cartography, Nationalism, and the Politics of Deity in Varanasi". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 165–188.

Sarasvati, B. N. 1975. Kashi: Myth and Reality of a Classical Cultural Tradition. Simla: Institute of Advanced Studies.

Sarasvatî, Dandî Svâmî Shîvânand. 1990. Kâshî darshan. Vârânasî: Dharmasangha [in Hindi].
— 1998. Kâshi gaurav (kâshî kî pancakroshî yâtrâ 'mâhâtmya' kâshî kâ itihâs kâshî mâhâtmya vartmân mem pracalit vârânasî kî sampûrn yâtrâ). Vârânasî: Dharmasangha [in Hindi].

Singh, Birendra Pratap. 1985. Life in Ancient Varanasi (An Account Based on Archaeological Evidence). Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan.

Singh, Ram Dular (ed.).1986. Bengal and Varanasi: a study of cultural synthesis & national integration (Bengal's Contribution to Varanasi). Calcutta: Bibliographical Society of India.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1989. Where Cultural Symbols Meet: Literary Images of Varanasi. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

Medhasananda, Swami. 2002. Varanasi at the Crossroads. A Panoramic View of early Modern Varanasi and the Story of its Transition. Kolkata: Ramakrishna Mission Institute.

Upâdhyâya, Baldeva. 1994. Kâshi kî pânditya paramparâ (kâshîstha samskrta vidvânom jîvancarit evam sâhityak avadânom kâ prâmânik vivaran) [1200-1980]. Vârânasî: Vishvavidyâlaya Prakâshan [in Hindi].

Visuvalingam, Sunthar & Elizabeth Chalier-Visuvalingam. 1993. "Between Mecca and Banaras: Towards an Acculturation-Model of Muslim-Hindu Relations". Islam and the Modern Age 24: 20-69.

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3. History

Agrawala, Vasudeva S. 1984a. Sârnâth. 4th Ed. Calcutta: Archaeological Survey of India.
— 1984b. Varanasi Seals and Sealings. Varanasi: Prithivi Prakashan.

Altekar, A. S. 1947. Benares and Sarnath: Past and Present. Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University Press.

Archers, Mildred. 1971. "Banaras and the British". In: Krishna, Anand (ed.), Chavi Golden Jubilee Volume. Banaras: 70-74, figures 179-85.

Chandra, Motî. 1962. Kâshî kâ Itihâs. Bombay [in Hindi].

Cohn, Bernard S. 1960. "The initial British Impact on India, a case study of Banaras region". Journal of Asian Studies (Ann Arbor) 19(4): 418-31. [Reprinted in Cohn 1988, loc. cit., 320-42.]
— 1962a. "Political Systems in Eighteenth Century India: The Banaras Region". Journal of the American Oriental Society 82: 312-20. [Reprinted in Cohn 1988, loc. cit., 483-99.] 
— 1962b. "The British in Benares: A Nineteenth Century Colonial Society". ComparativeStudies in Society and History 4.2. [Reprinted in Cohn 1988, loc. cit., 422-62.] 
— 1988. An Anthropologist among the Historians and Other Essays. With an introduction by Ranajit Guha. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. [See section IV. "The British in Benares" with reprints of eight essays on Banaras.] 

Colebrooke, Edward. 1887. "Warren Hastings in Benares, 1781". In: Asiatic quarterly review Ser. 1, 3 (Oct.1887): 279-312.

Devi, R. 1975. "Bihar's response to the rising of Chait Singh of Banaras". In: Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society 61,1/4 (Jan.-Dec.1975): 123-130.

Freitag, Sandria B. 1989. "Introduction. The History and Political Economy of Banaras". In: Freitag (ed.) 1989a, loc. cit., 1-22.

Köckmann, Uwe. 1980. Revivalismus in Indien: Zur politischen Geschichte Varanasis. (Diss.) Bochum.

Mishra, Kamla Prasad. 1975. Banaras in Transition (1738-1895): A Socio-Economic Study. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Nair, P. Thankappan. 1999. James Prinsep. Life and Work. Vol. I Background and Benares Period, Calcutta, Firma KLM Private.

Namasivaya, Swami. 1932. Guide to Benares. Benares.

Narain, A. K. & T. N. Roy (eds.). 1976. Excavations at Rajghat. 1957-58, 1960-65. Part I-IX. Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University Press.

Narain, V. A. 1959. Jonathan Duncan and Varanasi. Calcutta: K. L.Mukhopadhyay.

Niyogi, Roma. 1959. The History of the Gâhadavâla Dynasty. Calcutta: Oriental Book Agency.

Pândeya, Bânârasî Lal. 1975. Mahârâja Balavanta Simha aur Kâshî kâ Atîta. Varanasi: Narayana Prakashan. [in Hindi]

Ray, Aniruddha. 1989. "Revolt of Vizir Ali of Oudh at Benares in 1799". In: Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Forty-Ninth Session, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 1988: 331–338.

Roy, T. N. 1986. "Archaeological Excavations". In: Verma T. P. & Singh, D. P. & Mishra, J. S. (eds.), loc. cit., 24-30.

Sanyal, Suprakash. 1979. Benares and the English East India Company, 1764-1795. Calcutta: The World Press Private Ltd.

Singh, Birendra Pratap. 1985. Life in Ancient Varanasi. Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1993c. "Varanasi: Demographical Profile in 1820s and its Linkage to the Past and Present". In: Singh, R.P.B. 1993a, loc. cit: 279-288.
— 2005. "The Growth of the City". In: Michell, George & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). 2005: 22–29.

Sukul, Kuber Nath. 1974. Varanasi Down the Ages. Patna.

The Imperial Gazetteer of India, Bd. VII. Oxford 1908 (New Edition). 

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4. Cultural Geography, Ganges

Akhtar, Jamal. 1992. Muslims in Varanasi City: A Study in Cultural Geography. Ph. D. thesis. Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. 

Bakker, Hans. 1996. "Construction and Reconstruction of Sacred Space in Vârânasî". Numen XLIII (1): 32-55.

Darrian, St. 1978. The Ganges in Myth and History. Honululu. 

Derné, Steve. 1998. "Feeling Water: Notes on the sensory Construction of Time and Space in Banaras". Man in India 78: 1-7.

Doron, Assa. 2005. "Encountering the 'Other': Pilgrims, Tourists and Boatmen in the City of Varanasi". The Australian Journal of Anthropolgy, 16. 2: 157–178. 

Eck, Diana L. 1998. "The Imagined Landscape: Patterns in the Construction of Hindu Sacred Geography". Contributions to Indian Sociology (n.s.) 32 (2): 165-88.

Gaenszle, Martin (in collaboration with Nutan Dhar Sharma). 2002. "Nepali Kings and Kâshî: On the Changing Significance of a Sacred Centre". Studies in Nepali History and Society 7, 1: 1–33.

Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006. Visualizing Space in Vârânasî. Images, Maps, and the Practice of Representation. Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz. 2006 (Ethno-Indology. Heidelberg Studies in South Asian Rituals 4).

Gengnagel, Jörg. 2000. "Visualisierung religiöser Räume. Zur Kartographie von Benares". In: Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria & Stolz, F. (eds.) Cartografia religiosa, Religiöse Kartographie, Cartographie religieuse. Bern: Peter Lang, 217-34.
— (with Michaela Dimmers) 2002. Index of Kashikhanda. Compiled by Michaela Dimmers & Jörg Gengnagel. Electronic Publications of the Varanasi Research Project II. URL: http://www.benares.uni-hd.de/kkh-index.htm. University of Heidelberg, South Asia Institute.

— 2003. "Mapping Sacred Spaces–Aspects of Cartography in 19th century Banaras". In: Dorofeeva-Lichtmann, Vera & Michael Dickhardt (eds.). Creating and Representing Sacred Spaces (Göttinger Beiträge zur Asienforschung). Göttingen: Peust-und-Gutschmidt: 243–58.

Gengnagel, Jörg & Axel Michaels. 2001. Kailâsanâtha Sukula's Mirror of Kâshî (Kâshîdarpana, 1876). A historical map of Vârânasî based on the Kâshîkhanda and related texts. Electronic Publications of the Varanasi Research Project I. URL: http://www.benares.uni-hd.de University of Heidelberg, South Asia Institute.

Gutschow, Niels & Axel Michaels. 1993. Benares: Tempel und religiöses Leben in der heiligen Stadt der Hindus. Köln: DuMont Buchverlag.

Gutschow, Niels. 1994. "Vârânasî/Benares: The Centre of Hinduism? A Discussion of the Meaning of 'Place' and 'Space'". Archiv für Wissenschaftliche Geographie 48: 194-209.
1999. Pilgrimage and Space: The definatory purpose of pilgrimage routes (Case Studies from Bhaktapur, Kag and Muktinath (Nepal) and Varanasi). Contribution for the Conference "Pilgrimage and Complexity" at Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts in New Delhi, 5-9 January 1999.

Köckmann, Uwe. 1982. Hindutradition und Stadtentwicklung. Varanasi: Analyse einer gewachsenen ungeplanten Pilgerstadt am Ganges. Bochum: Studienverlag Dr. Brockmeyer.

Mecking, Ludwig. 1913. "Benares, ein kulturgeographisches Charakterbild". Geographische Zeitschrift (Leipzing; A. Hettner, ed.) 19: 20-35 und 77-96.

Michaels, Axel. 2000. "Konstruktionen von Translokalität und Zentralität. Eine religiöse Karte von Benares". In: Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria & F. Stolz (eds.), Cartografia religiosa, Religiöse Kartographie, Cartographie religieuse. Bern: Peter Lang: 187-216.

Narain, A. K. et al. (eds.). 1976. Excavations at Râjghât, Part I-IX. Varanasi: Banaras Hindu University.

Pieper, Jan. 1979. "A Pilgrim's Map of Benares: Notes on Codification in Hindu Cartography". GeoJournal (Dordrecht) 3 (2): 215-18.

Putman, John J. (photographs by Singh, Raghubir). 1971. "The Ganges, River of Faith". National Geographic (Washington D.C.), 140 (4), October: 445-83.

Rama Rau, Santha (photographs by Heiderer, Tony). 1986. "Banaras: India's City of Light". National Geographic, 169 (2), February: 214-51.

Saraswati, Baidyanath. 1985. "Kashi Pilgrimage - The End of an endless Journey". Jha, Makhan (ed.) Dimensions of Pilgrimage. An Anthropological Appraisal (Based on the Transactions of a World Symposium on Pilgrimage). New Delhi: Inter-India Publications: 91–104.

Shamkar, Hari. 1996. Kâshi ke ghât: Kalâtmak evam sâmskritik adhyayan. Vârânasî: Vishvavidhyâlay Prakâshan [in Hindi].

Singh, Onkar & V. K. Kumra & J. Singh. 1988. India's Urban Environment: Pollution, Perception and Management. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

Singh, R. L. 1955. Banaras: A Study in Urban Geography. Banaras: Nand Kishore & Sons.

Singh, R. L. & Rana P. B. Singh. 1980. "Cognizing urban landscape of Benares: a note on cultural synthesis". The National Geographical Journal of India 26 (3-4): 113-23.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1987a. "The Pilgrimage Mandala of Varanasi/Kashi: A Study in Sacred Geography". The National Geographical Journal of India 33: 493-524.
—1987b. "Toward Myth, Cosmos, Space and Mandala in India - a Search in the Geography of Belief Systems". The National Geographical Journal of India 33: 305-26.
—1990. "Literary Images, Cultural Symbols and Intimate Sensing. The Ganga River in Varanasi". National Geographical Journal of India 36: 117-28.
— 1991. "Panchakroshi Yatra, Varanasi: Sacred journey, ecology of place and faithscape". National Geographical Journal of India, 37(1–2): 49–98.
— 1993d. "The Ganga Ghats, Varanasi: The Riverfront Landscape". In: Singh, R.P.B. 1993b, loc. cit., 65-101.
— 1994. "The Sacred Geometry of India´s Holy City, Varanasi: Kashi as Cosmogram". National Geographical Journal of India 40 (1-2): 189-216.
— 1998. "Sacred Journey and Faithscape: An experience of the Panchakroshi Pilgrimage, Varanasi (India)". The Pennsylvania Geographer 36.1: 55–91.
2002. Towards the Pilgrimage Archetype. The Pancakroshî Yâtrâ of Banâras". Pilgrimage & Cosmology Series: 3. Varanasi: Indica Books.

Singh, Rana P. B. & Masaaki Fukunaga. 2000. "Perfoming Pilgrimage and Pilgrimage-Tourism: An Experience of the Pañcakroshî Yâtrâ, Varanasi". In D. P. Dubey (ed.). Pilgrimage Studies: the power of sacred places. Allahabad, Society of Pilgrimage Studies: 183–205. (Pilgrimage Studies No. 5)

Singh, Ravi S. & Rana P. B. Singh. 2006. "Goddesses in Kâshî (Vârânasî): Spatial Patterns and Symbolic Orders". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 41–68.

Tagare, G. V. 1991: "Pilgrimages at Kâshî: Past and Present". Journal of the Oriental Institute 41: 13–16.

Varady, Robert G. 1989. "Land Use and Environmental Change in the Gangetic Plain. Nineteenth Century Human Activity in the Banaras Region". In: Freitag, S.B. (ed.) 1989a, loc. cit., 229-45.

Visuvalingam, Sunthar & Elizabeth Chalier-Visuvalingam. 2006. "Bhairava in Banaras: Negotiating Sacred Space and Religious Identity". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 95–128.

Wilke, Annette. 2006. "The Banarsî Navadurgâ Cycle and its Spatial Orientation". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 69–94.

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5. Arts, Architecture

Agrawal, Prithvi K. 1978. "Some Varanasi Images of Ganapati and the Iconographic Problem". Artibus Asiae 39 (2), 139-55.

Agrawala, Vasudeva S. 1984. Varanasi Seals and Sealings. Varanasi: Prthivi Prakashan.

Archers, William G. 1971. "Banaras and British Art". In: Anand Krishna (ed.), Chavi Golden Jubilee Volume. Banaras, 43-47, figures 123-32.

Banerji, Adris. 1945. "Some sculptures from Rajghat, Benares". In: The Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Research Institute 3, 1 (Nov. 1945): 1-9.

Bautze, Joachim K. 2006. "Examples of Unlicensed Copies and Versions of Views from Benares:Their Authorship and Identification". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 213–232.

Couté, P.-D. & J.-M. Léger (eds.). 1989. Bénarès: Un Voyage d'Architecture. Paris: Editions Creaphis.

Dwivedi, Prem Shankar. 1993. Durga (Theme in Varanasi Wall Paintings). Delhi: Eastern Book Linkers.
2005. "The Mahamaya Temple Murals". In: Michell, George & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). 2005: 98–105.

Gardner, Robert. 2001. Making Forest of bliss a conversation between Robert Gardner and Ákos Östör. 1 DVD (90 min., engl., documentary, USA 1986).

Giri, Kamal & Maruti Nandan Tiwari. 1998. "A rare Pancayatana Sivalinga from Varanasi". In: Festschrift Sahai 1998: 125-128.

Gutschow, Niels. 2005. "The Panchakroshi Temple". In: Michell, George & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). 2005: 92–97.
— 2006. "Panoramas of Banaras". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 191–211.

Hegewald, Julia. 2005. "Ghats and Riverside Palaces". In: Michell, George & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). 2005: 67–77.

Horne, Charles. 1873. "Notes on the age of the ruins chiefly situated at Banáras and Jaunpúr". In: The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 42, 1 (1873): 160-164.

Joshi, N. P. 1990. "Varanasi-Silapatts, a unique depiction of Varanasi in sculpture". In: Sinha, Chitta Prasad (ed.): Archaeology and Art, Vol. 2, Delhi: 390-94.
— 1992. "Deva-Pattas: a less known chapter of medieval Hindu canopy". In: T.S. Maxwell (ed.) Eastern Approaches: Essays on Asian Art and Archaeology. Delhi: Oxford University Press: 133-40.

Kittoe, M. 1852. "Memo on some ancient gold coins found near Benares, in 1851, and submitted by the Government of India for the inspection of the members of the Asiatic Society". In: The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 21 (1852): 390-400.

Kohili, Sujata. 1986. Varanasi: A Study in Landscape Architecture.(With special reference to Ghats). Unpublished M.Arch. thesis in landscape architecture. New Delhi: School of planning and architecture.

Kumar, Nita. 1987. "The Mazars of Banaras: a new perspective on the city's sacred geography". The National Geographical Journal of India 33 (3): 263-67.

Krishna, Rai Anand. 2003. Banaras in the early 19th Century. Riverfront Panorama. Panorama of Banaras viewed from accross the Ganges by 'a native artist'. Text by Rai Anand Krishna & Manu Krishna. Indica Books: Varanasi.

Michell, George. 2005. "Temple Styles". In: Michell, George & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). 2005: 78–91.

Misra, R. N. 1984. "Banaras yaka legends and the Rajghat image". In: Bhāratī 15 (1971-1984): 132-136.

Mookerjee, Ajit (ed.). 1966. Banaras Brocades: Essays by Rai Ananda Krishna and Vijay Krishna. New Delhi: Craft Museum.

Prinsep, James. 1833. Benares, Illustrated in a Series of Drawings. Calcutta: Smith, Elder & Co.

Rötzer, Klaus & Khandu Deokar. 1994. "Mughal gardens in Benares and its neighbourhood in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries". In: Confluence of cultures: French contributions to Indo-Persian studies, ed. by Françoise "Nalini" Delvoye 1994: 131-169.

Rötzer, Klaus. 2005. "Mosques and Tombs". In: Michell, George & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). 2005: 50–65.

Sahni, Daya Ram. 1914. Catalogue of the Museum of Archaeology at Sârnâth. Calcutta: Government Printing.
— 1924. "Manikarnika Ghat (Benares) stone inscription of Viresvara". In: The Indian antiquary 53 (1924): 209-211.

Sherring, M. A. & Charles Horne. 1865. "Description of the Buddhist ruins at Bakariya Kund, Benares". In: The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 34,1 (1865): 1-13.
— 1866. "Description of ancient remains of Buddhist monasteries and temples, and of other buildings, recently discovered in Benares and its vicinity". In: The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 35,1 (1866): 61-87.

Smith, Vincent A. 1909. "Identification of the Aśoka Pillar N. E. of Benares City described by Hiuen Tsang". In: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 63 (1909): 337-345

Sukul, Kubera Nath. 1970. "Original sites of some important temples of Varanasi". In: The Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Research Institute 26, 1/3 (Jan.-Jul. 1970): 717-724.

Venis, Arthur. 1894. "Benares copper-plate grants of Govindachandra of Kanauj". In: Epigraphia indica 2 (1894): 358-363.

Verma, T. P. 1984. "The temples of Banaras". In: Bhâratî 15 (1971-1984): 194-205.

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6. Religion, Ritual

Bauer, Marcel & Christoph. 1980. Der Tod in Benares. Trier: Spee-Buchverlag GmbH.

Chalier-Visuvalingam, Elizabeth. 1989. "Bhairava's Royal Brahmanicide: The Problem of the Mahâ- Brâhmana". In: A. Hiltebeitel (ed.), Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 157-229.
– 1986. "Bhairav: Kotwâla of Vârânasî". In: Verma, Singh & Mishra, J. S. (eds.), loc. cit. 241-60.
– & S. Visuvalingam. 1996. "Bhairava and the Goddess. Tradition, Gender and Transgression". In: Michaels, A. & C. Vogelsange & A. Wilke (ed..), Wild Goddesses in India and Nepal. Bern: Peter Lang, 253-302.
– 2003. Bhairava: terreur et protection. Mythes, rites et fLtes B BénarPs et B Katmandou. Dieux, Hommes et Religions/Gods, Humans and Religions Vol. 4. Bruxelles, Bern, Berlin: Peter Lang.

Claveyrolas, Mathieu 2003. Quand le temple prend vie. Atmosphére et dévotion à Bénarés. Collection : Monde indien. Sciences sociales, 15e-20e siécle. Paris: CNRS Éditions.

Coccari, Diana M. 1989. "The Bir Babas of Banaras and the Deified Dead". In: A. Hiltebeitel (ed.), Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 251-69.
– 1989. Protection and Identity: Banaras's Bir Babas as Neighbourhood Guardian Deities". In: S. Freitag (ed.) 1989a, loc. cit., 130-46.

Corre, L. 1989. "Akhara and naubatkhana". In: Couté, P.-D. & J.-M. Léger (eds.), Bénarès. Un Voyage d'Architecture. Paris: Edition Creaphis, 141-49.

Elder, Joseph W. 1977. An Indian Pilgrimage: Kashi. Film Guide.

Gengnagel, Jörg. 2005. "Kâshîkhandokta: On texts and processions in Vârânasî". In: Words and Deeds. Hindu and Buddhist Rituals in South Asia. Gengnagel, Jörg & Ute Hüsken & Srilata Raman (eds.). Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz (Ethno-Indology. Heidelberg Studies in South Asian Rituals 1): 65–89.
2006. "Maps and Processions in Banaras: The debate concerning the Pañcakroshîyâtrâ". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.) 2006: 145–163.

Giri, Kapiladeva. 1973. "Vârânasî aura jainadharma“. [Hindi] In: Prajñâ 18,2 (Mar.1973): 86-92.

Hein, Norvin. 1959. "The Ram Lila". In: M. Singer (ed.), Traditional India: Structure and Change. Philadelphia: American Folklore Society, 73-98.

Herbert, Jean. 1957. Banaras. A Guide to Panch-Kroshi Yatra. Calcutta, Saturday Mail Publications.

Hess, Linda. 1983. "Râma Lîlâ: The Audience Experience". In: M. Thiel-Horstmann (ed.), Bhakti in Current Research. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer, 171-94.

Howard, Wayne. 1986. Veda Recitation in Varanasi. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Irwin, John. 1983. "The Lat Bhairo at Benares (Varanasi): Another Pre-Ashokan Monument?". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (Wiesbaden) 133 (3): 321-52.

Justice, Christopher. 1997. Dying the Good Death. The Pilgrimage to die in India's Holy City. New York, State University Press.

Kapera, Constance. 1966. The Worship of Kali in Varanasi: An Inquiry. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Kapur, Anuradha. 1990. Actors, Pilgrims, Kings and Gods: The Ramlila at Ramnagar. Calcutta: Seagull Books. [see also Contr. to Indian Soc. 19 (1985) 57-74].
— 1991. Râjâ and Prâjâ: Presentational Conventions in the Râmlîlâ at Ramnagar. In: Thiel-Horstmann, M. (ed.) Râmâyana and Râmâyanas. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 153-68.

Katz, Marc J. 1993. The children of Assi: the transference of religious traditions and communal inclusion in Banaras. Göteborg: Departement of Religious Studies.

Kaushik, Meena 1976. "The Symbolic Representation of Death". Contributions to Indian Sociology (N.S.) 10 (2), 265-292. Reprinted in R.P.B. Singh (ed.) 1993b, loc.cit., 123-39.

Keul, István 1998: "Ein Gott macht Karriere. Hanumanverehrung in Benares". Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft 6, 23-45.
— 2002. Hanumân, der Gott in Affengestalt: Entwicklung und Erscheinungsformen seiner Verehrung. Berlin, New York: de Gruyter.

Kumar, Nita. 1986a. "Open Space and Free Time: Pleasure for the People of Banaras". Contributions to Indian Sociology, NS 20 (1): 41-60.
— 1986b. "Patronage, Identity and Cultural Change: Five Melas of Banaras". In: T.P. Verma & D.P. Singh & J.S. Mishra (ed.s) 1986, loc. cit., 159-170. Reprinted in Singh 1993b, loc. cit., 225-33.

Lutgendorf, Philip. 1989a. "Râma's Story in Shiva's City: Public Arenas and Private Patronage". In Freitag, S.B. (ed.) 1989a, loc. cit., 34-61.
— 1989b. "The View from the Ghats: Traditional Exegesis of a Hindu Epic". Journal of Asian Studies (Ann Arbor), 48 (2): 272-88.
— 1992. The Life of a Text: Performing the Râmacaritamânas of Tulsidas. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Malville, John McKim. 1985. "Sun Worship in Contemporary India". Man in India 63 (3): 207-33.

Michaels, Axel. 2003. "Tîrtha. Orte der Transzendenz in hinduistischen Texten, Ritualen und Karten". In: G. Oberhammer & Marcus Schmücker (eds.). Mythisierung der Transzendenz als Entwurf ihrer Erfahrung. Wien, Verlag der Österreich. Akademie: 349–79.
— 2006. "Mapping the Religious and Religious Maps. Aspects of Transcendence and Translocality in two Maps of Vârânasî". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.) 2006: 131–143.

Parkhil, Thomas. 1993. "What's Taking Place: Neighborhood Ramlilas in Banaras". In: Hertel, Bradley R. & Humes, Cynthia A. (eds.), loc. cit., 127-44.

Parry, Jonathan P. 1980. "Ghost, Greed and Sin: The Occupational Identity of the Benares Funeral Priests". Man (RAIGI, London), N.S., 15 (1-2): 88-111. Reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. 1993b, loc. cit., 179-96.
— 1981. "Death and Cosmogony in Kashi". Contributions to Indian Sociology N.S. (New Delhi), 15 (1-2), 337-365. Reprinted in Singh, Rana P. B. 1993b, loc. cit., 103-21.
— 1982. "Sacrificial Death and Necrophagous Ascetic". In: M. Bloch & J. Parry (eds.), Death and the Regeneration of Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 74-110.
— 1985. "The Aghori Ascetics of Benares". In: Burghart, R. & Cantlie, A. (eds.), Indian Religion. London/New York: 51-78.
— 1994. Death in Banaras. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [see: Laidlaw, James 1996: "The Uses and Abuses of Theology: Comments on Jonathan Parry´s Death in Banaras." Review Article. South Asia Research 16: 31–44.]

Pathak, R.K. & C.A. Humes 1993. "Lolark Kund: Sun and Shiva Worship in the City of Light". In: Hertel, Bradley R. & Cynthia A. Humes (eds.), loc. cit., 205-44.

Pintchman, Tracy. 2005. Guests at God's wedding: celebrating Kartik among the women of Benares. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

Pugh, Judy F. 1983a. "Astrological Counseling in Contemporary India". Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 7 (1): 1-21.
—1983b. "Into the Almanac: Time, Meaning, and Action in North Indian Society". Contributions to Indian Sociology, N.S., 17 (1): 27-49.
— 1984. "Concepts of Person and Situation in North Indian Counseling". Contribution to Asian Studies (Leiden), 18: 85-105.

Saraswati, B. N. 1985. "The Kashivasis Widows". Man in India, 65 (2): 107-20.

Sawyer, Dana W. 1993. "The Monastic Structure of Banarasi Dandi Sadhus". In: Bradley R. Hertel & Humes, Cynthia A. (eds.), loc. cit., 159-180.

Sax, W. S. 1993. The Râmnagar Râmlîlâ: Text, Performance, Pilgrimage. In: Singh 1993b: 257-73.

Schechner, Richard 1982a. "Ramlila of Ramnagar and America's Oberammergau: Two Celebratory Ritual Dramas". In: Turner, Victor (ed.), Celebrations: Studies in Festivity and Ritual. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 89-106.
— 1982b. "Ramlila of Ramnagar: An Introduction". Quarterly Journal of the Nation Centre for the Performing Arts (Bombay), 11 (3-4): 66-98.
— 1983. "Ramlila of Ramnagar: An Introduction". In: ibid. (ed.), Performative Circumstances. Calcutta: Seagull Books, 238-88.
— 1985. "Ramlila of Ramnagar". In: ibid. (ed.), Between Theatre and Anthropology. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 151-211.
— 1993a. "Striding Through the Cosmos: Movement, Belief, Politics and Place in the Ramlila of Ramnagar". In: ibid., The Future of Ritual. London/New York: Routledge, 131-83.
— 1993b. "Crossing the Water: Pilgrimage, Movement, and Environmental Scenography of the Ramlila of Ramnagar". In: Hertel, Bradley R. & Humes, Cynthia A. (eds.), loc. cit., 159-80.
— & Linda Hess. 1977. "The Ramlila of Ramnagar (India)". The Drama Review (New York), 21 (3): 51-88.

Singh, Rana P. B. 1987a. "The Pilgrimage Mandala of Varanasi/Kashi: A Study in Sacred Geography". The National Geographical Journal of India (33): 493-524.
— 1987b. "Toward Myth, Cosmos, Space and Mandala in India - a Search in the Geography of Belief Systems". The National Geographical Journal of India, (33): 305-26.
— 1988. "The Image of Varanasi: Sacrality and Perceptual World in Hindu Codification". The National Geographical Journal of India (34): 1-32.
— 1990. "Time and Hindu Ritual in Vârânasî". In: L. Gopal and D.P. Dubey (eds.), Pilgrimage Studies: Text and Context. Allahabad: 67-72.

Sinha, S. & B. Saraswati. 1978. Ascetics of Kashi: An Anthropological Exploration. Varanasi.

Shulman, David. 1998. "Ambivalence and longing: Vyâsa´s curse on Kâshi". In: Kedar, Benjamin Z. & R.J. Zwi Werblowsky (eds.), Sacred Space: Shrine, City, Land. New York: New York University Press, 192-214.

Wadley, S. S. 1980. "Sitala: The Cool One". Asian Folklore Studies (39): 33-62.

Wilke, Annette. 1993. "Durgâ-Pûjâ in Benares". Unipress (Bern) 78: 19-25.

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7. Economics and Society

Alter, Joseph S. 1992. The Wrestler's Body and Ideology in North India. Berkeley: University of California Press.
— 1993. "Hanuman and the Moral Physique of the Banarasi wrestler". In: Hertel, Bradley R. & Cynthia A. Humes (eds.), loc. cit., 127-44.

Arnold, David. 1989. "The ecology and cosmology of disease in the Banaras region". In Freitag 1989a: 246-67.

Bayly, Christopher A. 1983. Rulers, Townsmen and Bazaar: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Carnegy, Patrick. 1876. "The Bhars of Audh and Banáras". In: The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 45,1 (1876): 297-308.

Cohen, Lawrence. "Toward an Anthropology of Senility: Anger, Weakness and Alzheimer's in Banaras, India". Medical Anthropology Quarterly 9.3 (1995): 314–34.



Derné, Steve. 1995. Culture in action: family life, emotion, and male dominance in Banaras, India. Albany: State Univ. of New York Press.

Freitag, Sandria B. 2005. "Power and Patronage: Banaras in the 18th and 19th Centuries". In: Michell, George & Rana P. B. Singh (eds.). 2005: 31–41.

Heitler, R. 1972. "The Varanasi House Tax Hartal of 1810-11". Indian Economic and Social History Review 10, 3: 239-57.

Kaushik, Meena. 1979. Religion and social structure: a case study of the Doms of Banaras. Ph.D thesis. University of Delhi.

Kennedy, James. 1884. Life and Work in Benares and Kumaon, 1839-1877. London: T. Fischer Unwin [New York 1885].

Kumar, Nita. 1989. "Work and Leisure in the Formation of Identity: Muslim Weavers in a Hindu City". In: Freitag, S.B. 1989a (ed.), loc. cit.: 147-70.
— 1988. The Artisans of Banaras: Popular Culture and Identity, 1860-1986. Princeton University Press.
— 1992. Friends, Brothers and Informants: Fieldwork Memoirs of Benares. Berkeley: University of California Press.
— 2000. Lessons from Schools. The History of Education in Banaras. New Delhi: Sage.
2006. "The Space of the Child: The Nation, the Neighbourhood, and the Home". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 255–278.

Lodrick, Deryck O. 1979. "On religion and milk bovines in an urban Indian setting". Current Anthropology (Chicago), (20) 1: 241-42. Reprinted in Singh, Rana P.B. 1993b (ed.), loc. cit., 225-33.

Malik, Dipak. 1996. "Three riots in Varanasi". In: Religion, religiosity and communalism 1996: 157-166.

Pandey, Gyanendra. 1990. "The Colonial Construction of 'Communalism': British Writings on Banaras in the Nineteenth Century". In: Das, Veena (ed.). 1990. Mirrors of Violence. Communities, Riots and Survivors in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press: 94–134.

Pandey, Rajendra Bihari. 1960. "Studies in the history of Kâshî: economic life". In: The Journal of Oriental Research Madras 29 (1959/1960): 1-34.

Prinsep, James. 1832. "Census of the population of the city of Benares". Asiatic Researches (Calcutta) 1: 470-98.

Saxena, Kavita 1995. Life and Status of professional women: a study of Varanasi. New Delhi: Radiant Publication.

Schütte, Stefan. 2003. Soziale Netzwerke als räumliche Orientierungssysteme. Eine sozialgeographische Untersuchung zur Konstruktion von Raum und Lokalität der Wäscher in Benares. Ph.D thesis, Heidelberg University. (Vol. 23 of "Studien zur Geographischen Entwicklungsforschung", H. G. Bohle & T. Krings eds.). Saarbrücken: Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik.
– 2006. "The Social Landscape of the Washermen in Banaras". In: Gaenszle, Martin & Jörg Gengnagel (eds.). 2006: 279–301.

Searle-Chatterjee, M. 1979. "The Polluted Identity of Work. A Study of Benares Sweepers". In: Wallmann, S. (ed.), Social Anthropology of Work, London, 269-86. 
— 1981. Reversible Sex Roles: The Special Case of Benares Sweepers. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Shastri, Jagdishal (not dated). Bhojaprabandha of Balladeva of Banaras. Motilal Banarsidass.

Shastri. M. H. 1912. "Dakshini Pandits at Benares". Indian Antiquary 41 (1): 7-13.

Sherring, M. A. 1872. Hindu Tribes and Castes as Represented in Benares. Reprint Cosmo Publ., Delhi in 1974, 2 Vols.
— 1897. "Index to Hindu tribes and castes as represented in Benares". In: The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 65, 3 (1896), spec. no. (1897): 1-112.

Showeb, M. 1994. Silk handloom industry of Varanasi: a study of socio-economic problems of weavers. Varanasi: Ganga Kaveri Publ. House.

Singha, Radhika. 1998. "Civil Authority and Due Process: Colonial Criminal Justice in the Banaras Zaminadari, 1781-99". In: Anderson, Michael. R. & Sumit Guha. 1998. Changing Concepts of Rights and Justice in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press: 30–81.

Singh, S. N. & R. C Yadava & T. Bhaduri. 1970. "A demographic survey of Varanasi 1969-70". In: Prajñā 16,1(Oct.1970): 176-189.

Srivastava, Harish Chandra. 1974. The Genesis of Campus Violence in Banaras Hindu University Varanasi. Allahabad: Indian International Pub.

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8. Benares in Sanskrit Literature

On Sanskrit Literature and Traditional Scholarship

Bäumer, Bettina. 2001. "Tântrik Pandits in Varanasi: A Brief Survey". In: Axel Michaels (ed.) 2001: The Pandit. Traditional Scholarship in India. (Festschrift Parameswara Aithal). New Delhi: Manohar: 99-103.

Clémentin-Ojha, C. 2000. "Être un brahmane smârta aujourd´hui. Quelques points de repère à partir une enquête ethnographique à Bénarès". Bulletin de l´École française d´Extrême-Orient 87: 317-39.

Eck, Diana L. 1980. "A Survey of Sanskrit Sources for the Study of Vârânasî". Purâna, Vol. 22: 81-101 [auch in R.P.B. Singh 1993c: 9-19].

Dalmia, Vasudha 1996. "Sanskrit Scholars and Pandits of the Old School: The Benares Sanskrit College and the Constitution of Authority in the Late Nineteenth Century". Journal of Indian Philosophy, 24 (4): 321-37.

Dar, S. L. 1995. "Contribution of Kashmiri pandits in the birth and growth of Banaras Hindu University". In: Kashmiri pandits 1995: 285-290.

Howard, Wayne. 1986. Veda Recitation in Varanasi. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Jolly, Julius. 1883. Gründung einer Handschriftenbibliothek in Benares. In: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 37 (1883): 282-284.

Kane, P.V. 1973. History of Dharmashâstra, Vol. IV, 2d ed. Chap. XIII. Poona .

Kavirâj, Gopînâth. 1965: Kâshî kî sârasvat sâdhanâ. Patna: Bihâr râshtrabhâshâ parishad [in Hindi].

King, Christopher R. 1974. The Nâgarî Prachârinî Sabhâ of Benares, 1893–1914. A Study in the Social and Political History of the Hindi Language. Ph.D. Diss. Univ. of Wisconsin.

Lütt, Jürgen. 1976. "The Movement for the Foundation of the Benares Hindu University". In: German Scholars on India, ed. Cultural Department of the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany, New Delhi. Vol. 2, 160–95.

Nicholls, George. 1907. History of Sanskrit College. Allahabad: United Province Government Press.

Sarma, K. V. 1971. "The manuscripts collection of the Jade family of Varanasi and the literary output of the Jade authors". In: Vishveshvaranand indological journal 9,2 (Sept. 1971): 347-356.

Sen, S. N. 1944. "Sanskrit College". In: The Journal of the Ganganatha Jha Research Institute 1, 3 (May 1944): 315-325.

Shastri, M. Harprasad 1912. "Dakshini Pandits at Benares". The Indian Antiquity (Calcutta) (41)1: 7-13.

Upâdhyâya, Baldeva 1994. Kâshi kî pânditya paramparâ (kâshîstha samskrta vidvânom jîvancarit evam sâhityak avadânom kâ prâmânik vivaran) [1200-1980]. Vârânasî: Vishvavidyâlaya Prakâshan [in Hindi].

Sources

Agni Purâna. Ânandâshrama Sanskrit Series 41, Poona, 1957. Dated: c. CE 8th century. Ref. to Varanasi 112.

Gañgâ Laharî of Jagannâtha. Varanasi: Thakur Prasad & Sons 1982.

Gañgâlaharî. Umesha Mishra Gauda (ed.). Varanasi 1990.

Kâshîkandha 1908 Sanskrit:

Kâshî Khanda (of Skanda Purâna). (Gurumandala Granthamalaya No.20, Vol.4). Calcutta 1961.

Kâshîkhanda. In: Skandapurâna, Bd. II. Singh, N. Sh. (ed.). Delhi 1982 [Reprint, 1830]

Gengnagel, Jörg & Michaela Dimmers 2002. Index of Kashikhanda. Compiled by Michaela Dimmers & Jörg Gengnagel. Electronic Publications of the Varanasi Research Project II. URL: http://www.benares.uni-hd.de/kkh-index.htm. University of Heidelberg, South Asia Institute.

Kâshîmâhâtmya of Shrî Shivânda Sarasvatî. Harishcandra Mani Tirpâthî (ed.). Vârânasî: Sampurnanand Sanskrit University 1997.

Kâshikhandah Maharshivyâsapranitah Râmânandapranitayâ "Râmânandî" vyakhyayâ; Nârâyanapatitripâthîpranitayâ "Nârâyanî" [4 vol.]. Karunâpathi Tripâthî (ed.). Vârânasî: Sampurnand Sanskrit University 1991; 1992; 1996; 1998.

Kashi Khand with poorvardha and uttarardha, Skanda Puranam Vol. IV. Shrimanmaharshi Krishna Dwaipayan Vedavyas (ed.). Calcutta: (Gurumandal Series No. XX) 1961.

Skanda-Purâna transl. and annotated by G. V. Tagare, Book IV: Kâshi-Khanda, 2 Vols., Delhi: Motilal 1996; 1997 (Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series 58, 59).

Kâshîkedâramâhâtmya with Hindî transl. by V. Tripâthî. Kâshî 1920.

Kâshîkedâramâhâtmya ed. and transl. by Vijanand Tripathi (with Hindi). Kasi: Achyut Granthamala 1931.

Kâshikedâramâhâtmyam, sâhityaranjanapanditashrivijayândatripâthiviracitabhâshânuvâdayutam. Krishna Panta Sâhityâcarya (ed.), Kâshî, Acyutagranthamâyâkâryâlaya: [edition without date, preface of editor gives: "caitra krishna 9 sam. 1988", Eck has 1920], (Acyutagranthamâlâh (kh) vibhâge dvitîyam pushpam).

Kâshîmâhâtmya (from the Pâtâla Khanda of the Padma Purâna). Nawal Kishore Press 1939.

Kâshîmokshanirnaya by Sureshvara. Sanskrit Text with Hindi. Uppadhyaya, A.D. (ed.). Gorakhpur: Sri Gaurishankar Ganerivala 1931.

Kâshîmritimokshavicâra by Sureshvara. Gopinath Kaviraj (ed.) (The Prince of Wales Saraswati Bhavan Text No.67). Allahabad: Government Printing 1936.

Kâshîpañcakroshîmâhâtmya. Banaras: Victoria Press 1906.

Kâshîpañcakroshîmâhâtmya. Shivananda Sarasvati (ed.) Varanasi: Dharma Sangha 1991.

Kâshîrahasya (An Appendix to the Brahmavaivarta Purâna). Râdhâkrishna Mor (ed.). Gurumandala Granthamalaya 14, Vol.III. Calcutta 1957.

Kâshîrahasya. Dube, J.N. (ed.). Vârânasî: Âdarsh Prakâshan Mandir 1984.

Kâshîtattvabhâskara. Munshi Haribhajan Lal (ed.). Banaras: Hitchintak Press 1917.

Kâshîyâtrâprakâsha. Banaras: Candraprabha Press 1913.

Purânas:

BrahmaPur 11

VâyuPur 92

BrahmândaPur 67

MatsyaPur 180-85

KûrmaPur I.29-34, II. 31

PadmaPur (A1dikhânda)

Vâmanapur 3.26ff

LiñgaPur 92

NâradaPur (Uttarabhâga) 48-51

ShivaPur (Kotirudrasamhitâ) 22-23

BhâgavataPur X.66 (= VishnuPur V.34)

MârkandeyaPur VII-VIII

AgniPur CX II .

The Skandapurâna, Vol I. Adhyâsas 1-25. Critically edited with a Prolegomena and English Synopsis. Adriaensen, R. & Bakker, H. T. & Isaacson, H. (eds.). Groningen 1998.

Tîrtha-Texts:

Krityakapataru (Tîrthavivecana Kânda). Aiyangar, K.V. (ed.) Baroda 1948ff.

Tîrthavivecanakânda. In: "Bhattashrîlakshmîdharaviracite Krtyakalpatarau ashtamo bhaga" Rangaswami Aiyangar, K. V. (ed.). Baroda (Gaekwad's Oriental Series 98) 1942.

Tristhâlîsetu. Mahâdeva Limanâjî Âpte (ed.). Poona 1915.

Tristhâlîsetu (of Nârâyana Bhatta). Ânandâshrama Sanskrit Series 78, Poona 1915. Dt.: c. CE 1545-1550.

Trishtâlîsetu [sârasangraha] by Bhattojidîkshita; Tirthendushekara by Nâgesha Bhatta; Kâshimokshavicâra by Sureshvarâcârya. Sûryanârâyana Shukla (ed.). Vârânasî: Sampuranand Sanskrit University 1997.

The Bridge to the Three Holy Cities: The Sâmânya-praghattaka of Nârâyana Bhatta's Tristhâlîsetu ed. et transl. by Salomon, Richard. Delhi, Varanasi, Patna 1985.

Sarasvati, Shivananda 1991. Kâshî Pañcakroshî Mâhâtmya.Varanasi: Dharma Sangha.

Smriticintâmani (Tîrthacintâmani)

Vîramotrodaya (Tîrthaprakâsha)

Pañcakoshâtmaka Jyotirliñga Kâshîmâhâtmya evam Kâshî kâ Prâcîna Itihâsa (in Sanskrit und Hindî). Vyâsa, Kedâranâtha. Varanasi 1987.

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9. Banaras in Hindi Literature

Golding, Paul R. 1997. Tales of Banaras. The Flowing Ganges. The Life and Lore of India's Sacred City on the Ganges. Translated from the original Hindi of Rudra Kashikey, pen name of Shiv Prasad Mishra by Paul R. Golding with Virendra Singh. Delhi: Book Faith India.

Hansen, Kathryn. 1989. "The Birth of Hindi Drama in Banaras, 1868-1885". In: Freitag, Sandria B. (ed.) 1989a,  loc. cit., 62-92.

Devatîrtha, Anantashrîcarana (Kâshthajihvâ Svâmî). 1997: Pancakrosha Sudhâ. Anuvâdak evam sampâdak: Satyanârâyana Shâstrî Khandugi. Varanasi: Sarvabharatiya Kashiraja Nyasa.

King, Christopher R. 1989. "Forming a New Linguistic Identity: The Hindi Movement in Banaras, 1868-1914". In: Freitag, Sandria B. (ed.) 1989a, loc. cit., 179-202.

Köckman, Uwe. 1993. "The Role of Educational Institutionin the Awakening of Hindu Nationalism in 19th Century Vârânasî". In: Singh, Rana P.B. (ed.) 1993b, loc.cit., 289-296.

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Singh, Rana P. B. 1989. Where Cultural Symbols Meet: Literary Images of Varanasi. Varanasi: Tara Book Agency.

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